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Evaluating Phenyl Propanoids Isolated from Citrus medica as Potential Inhibitors for Mitotic kinesin Eg5

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 11 ]

Author(s):

Himesh Makala, Venkatasubramanian Ulaganathan*, Aravind Sivasubramanian, Narendran Rajendran and Shankar Subramanian   Pages 1355 - 1363 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: Human mitotic kinesins play an essential role in mitotic cell division. Targeting the spindle separation phase of mitosis has gained much attention in cancer chemotherapy. Spindle segregation is carried out mainly by the kinesin, Eg5. Many Eg5 inhibitors are in different phases of clinical trials as cancer drugs. This enzyme has two allosteric binding sites to which the inhibitors can bind. The first site is formed by loop L5, helix α2 and helix α3 and all the current drug candidates bind un-competitively to this site with ATP/ADP. The second site, formed by helix α4 and helix α6, which has gained attention recently, has not been explored well. Some inhibitors that bind to this site are competitive, while others are uncompetitive to ATP/ADP. Phenylpropanoids are pharmacologically active secondary metabolites.

Methods: In this study, we have evaluated fourteen phenyl propanoids extracted from Citrus medica for inhibitory activity against human mitotic kinesin Eg5 in vitro steady-state ATPase assay. Ther interactions and stability using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

Results and Discussions: Of the fourteen compounds tested, naringin and quercetin showed good activity with IC50 values in the micromolar range. Molecular docking studies of these complexes showed that both the molecules interact with the key residues of the active site predominantly thorough hydrophobic & aromatic π–π interactions consistent with the known inhibitors. Besides, these molecules also form hydrogen bonding interactions stabilizing the complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations of these complexes confirm the stability of these interactions.

Conclusion: These results can be used as a strong basis for further modification of these compounds to design new inhibitors with higher potency using structure-based drug design.

Keywords:

Mitotic kinesin Eg5, Citrus phenylpropanoids, steady-state ATPase assay, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, ATP/ADP.

Affiliation:

Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu- 613401, Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu- 613401, Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu- 613401, Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu- 613401, Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu- 613401



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